The Fourth Michigan Infantry was recruited from the southern tier of counties of the State, being organized by Colonel Dwight A. Woodberry at Adrian. Like some of the other regiments, it was comprised of independant companies that had received considerable military knowledge, a valuable assistance in the organization of citizen soldiers. It was composed of the "Peninsular Guard" of Sturgis, the "Barry Guard" of Ann Arbor, the "Smith Guard" of Monroe, the "Trenton Volunteers" of Trenton, the "Dexter Union Guard" of Dexter, the "Hudson Volunteers" of Hillsdale, the "Grosvenor Union Guard" of Jonesville, and the "Tecumseh Volunteers" of Tecumseh. The organization of the Regiment was completed at its rendezvous in Adrian, then mustered into the United States service for three years on June 20, 1861. The Fourth was uniformed and equipped for field service before it left the state and started for Washington on June 25, 1861, with an enrollment of 1025 officers and men, arriving there on July 2nd., Going into camp near Georgetown, D. C.
The Fourth took part in McClellan's Peninsular Campaign of 1862, having been assigned to Griffin's Brigade, Morrell's Division of Porter's Corp and was present at the Seige of Yorktown, later fighting gallantly at Williamsburg. The conspicuous position it held in the advance of the army upon the Confederate forces at Newbridge, on the Chicahominy, displaying their valor there under the most trying circumstances earned it special notice from General McClelland in his dispatches to the war department.
In this campaign the Fourth sustained its honorable record at Hanover Court House, Mechanicsville, also covering itself with glory at the desperate battle of Gaines' Mills. It was engaged with heavy loss at Turkey Bend, and White Oak Swamp. At Malvern Hill, Colonel Woodbury fell at the head of his Regiment on July 1st, closing a usefull and brillant military career.
After the Peninsular Campaign the Fourth entered upon the Pope Campaign, taking part in the engagements at Gainsville, Manassas, then Antietam. In December they suffered severly at Fredericksburg, where it was a part of the Second Brigade, First Division, Fifth Corp.
May 4, 1863 saw the Fourth engaged at Chancellorsville, losing heavily in killed and wounded, then after long and fatiguing marches through Maryland and Pennsylvania arrived at Gettysburg, where it fought July 2nd and 3rd in that historic encounter, receiving the plaudits of distinguished officers for its deeds of heroism. From Gettysburg the Fourth followed the Confederate Army, all of the while actively on the march or fighting until the following October, when it went into camp at Warrenton Junction for a well earned rest.
On the 7th of November the Fifth Corp commenced a series of marches and actions along the Rapidan River, which continued, until the winter put a stop to active field operations.
The spring campaign of 1864 opened with the death grapple of Union and Confederate armies at the Wilderness. From this time until the expiration of its term of service in June, the Fourth was continuously engaged with the Confederates taking part in the sanguinary battles along the North Anna River and the Pumunky River. It was engaged before Petersburg, Va., June 16, then as the term of its three years service had expired, the Regiment was embarked for Washington, thence to Detroit. Arriving there on the 26th where it was mustered out of service on June 30, 1864.
|New Market,Va.||New Bridge,Va.||Hanover Court House, Va.|
|Mechanicsville,Va.||Gaines' Mill,Va.||Savage Station,Va.|
|Turkey Bend,Va.||White Oak Swamp,Va.||Malvern Hill,Va.|
|Gainesville,Va.||2nd Bull Run,Va.||Antietam,Md.|
|Shepardstown Ford||Snicker's Gap,Va.||Fredricksburg, Va.|
|Morrisville,Va.||United States Ford||Chancellorsville,Va.|
|Kelly's Ford,Va.||Ashby's Gap,Va.||Gettysburg,Pa.|
|Williamsport,Md.||Wapping Heights,Va.||Culpepper, Va.|
|Brandy Station,Va.||Bristo Station,Va.||Laurel Hill,Va.|
|Po River,Va.||Spottsylvania,Va.||Ny River,Va.|
|North Anna River||Jerico Mills,Va.||Noel's Turn,Va.|
|Tolopotomy,Va.||Magnolia Swamp,Va.||Bethesda Church,Va.|
|Harrisons Landing, Va.||Petersburg,Va.|
Organized at Adrian, Mich., and mustered in June 20, 1861.
Left State for Washington, D.C., June 26.
Attached to Wilcox's Brigade, Heintzelman's Division, McDowell's Army of Northeastern Virginia, to August, 1861.
Sherman's Brigade, Division of the Potomac, to October, 1861.
Morell's Brigade, Porter's Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862.
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to May, 1862.
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 5th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June, 1864.
|Killed in Action||124|
|Died of Wounds||68|
|Died in Confederate Prisons||16|
|Died of Disease||99|
|Discharged from Wounds||385|
|Total Casualty Rate||49.4%|
As soon as the original 4th was mustered out on June 30, 1864 One hundred and twenty-nine men re-enlisted as veteran volunteers and the Regiment was at once reorganized with eight new companies under Colonel Jairus W. Hall at Adrian.
It had been thought best to give the history of the first three years service, then the reorganized Fourth, separately in this history as they were practically two different Regiments, the original Fourth serving in the Army of the Potomac while the reorganized Fourth served in the Western theatre.
The reorganized Fourth was mustered into United States service October 14, 1864, then on the 22nd left Adrian for Nashville,Tn. It was engaged with the Confederates at Decatur, Ala., and New Market, soon after being sent to Huntsville, Al. where it was assigned to the Third Brigade, Third Division, Fourth Army Corp. In March the Regiment went by rail to Knoxville, Tn., then marched througout East Tennessee, returning to Knoxville on April 27th. In June the Fourth was embarked upon transports and sent to New Orleans, La., where a detachment of re-enlisted veterans joined the Regiment. In July the Regiment was sent by transports to Indianola, Texas then marched to San Antonio. The Regiment remained in Texas until May 26, 1866, where it mustered out of service at Houston, returning to Detroit June 10, where it was paid off and disbanded.
Organized at Adrian and Hudson, Mich., and mustered in October 14, 1864.
Left State for Nashville, Tenn., October 22; thence moved to Decatur, Ala., October 26.
Attached to District of Northern Alabama, Dept. of the Cumberland, to November, 1864.
1st Brigade. Defences of the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, Dept. of the Cumberland, to January, 1865.
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 4th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to June, 1865.
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 4th Army Corps, to August. 1865.
Dept. of Texas to May, 1866.
|Killed in Action||1|
|Wounded in Action||4|
|Died of Disease||119|
|Total Casualty Rate||12.2%|